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Early History of Cuba,..In English,..

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Early History of Cuba,..In English,..
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El Admintuerto
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Mensaje  Early History of Cuba,..In English,.. Responder citando
He encontrado una interesante cronología de la historia cubana en la página

Aunque algo incompleta considero que es, sin embargo, una útil referencia para los interesados en el tema. Cubre hechos hasta 1999.


Early History

3500 BC
The first humans arrive in Cuba.

1250 AD
Taino Indians arrive from the east.

August 3. With three ships, Cristóbal Colón (aka Christopher Columbus) sails into the unknown.
October 12. The expedition lands in what Colón calls "San Salvador," and the natives call "Guanahani" (and may possibly be the Watling Island).
October 14. Colón continues his expedition, soon along the shores of Cuba, which he calls "Juana," thinking that he's found Asia's mainland.
October 29. Cristóbal Colón lands in Cuba, claims island for Spain.

May 3. The Spanish Pope (Alexander VI) confirms Spanish claims to all lands "discovered" or "to be discovered" in the Western Ocean.
May 4. Pope Alexander VI issues a series of bulls that assigns a fixed dividing line (known as the Demarcation Line) between the possessions of Spain and Portugal. It runs 100 leagues west of the Cape Verde Isles. The region laying east of this line is to be settled by the Portuguese, and the territory to the west is to belong to Spain.
August 26. Pope Alexander VI issues a secret bull, the Dudum Siguidem, which nullifies any previous papal orders that had favored the Portuguese regarding the new world.
September 25. From Cádiz, Cristóbal Colón begins his second voyage to the New World. He brings 17 ships and 1,500 men, including missionaries, soldiers and laborers. There are about one hundred stowaways, as well as agricultural equipment, cattle and seeds

Sebastián de Ocampo circumnavigates Cuba and proves that it is an island.

Diego Colón (son of Cristóbal Colón) settles Cuba. Diego Velázquez is appointed governor of Cuba by Spain.

February 12. Hatuey is burned at the stake. Most of the indians (Ciboneys and Taíno Arawaks) that inhabit the island are eventually wiped out, and Cuba remains under Spanish rule for the next four centuries.
December 12. King Ferdinand of Spain thanks Diego Velásquez for the occupation of Cuba and for his "humane treatment of the natives."

The first record of slavery in Cuba. Landowner Amador de Lares gets permission to bring four African slaves from Hispaniola.
March - April. Juan Ponce de León discovers and sails along the South and Southeastern side of Florida (which he considers to be an island).
April 2. Juan Ponce de León lands on Florida's east coast and names it "La Florida."

The city of Havana is established by Pánfilo de Narváez. The city is named after San Cristóbal de Habana, a local chief.

Conquistador Hernán Cortés prepares a fleet in Cuba and sets sail for Mexico. After the conquest, Havana becomes the natural stopping point for fleets returning to Spain.
December 17. The first Catholic mass in Havana takes place under a ceiba tree.

The first large group of slaves (300) arrive in Cuba to work in a gold mine named Jaugua.

April 22. In the Treaty of Zaragoza, Spain and Portugal divide their claims in the Pacific by drawing an imaginary line from pole to pole 297-1/2 leagues east of the Moluccas.

December. A large Spanish force defeats Guamá and his followers.

The first recorded Negro slave uprising in Cuba takes place at the Jobabo mines. Four slaves battle a large military force until their death. Their heads are brought back to Bayamo to quiet the alarmed colonizers.

French pirates, with the help of disgruntled local slaves, burn the city of Havana.
See a map of the Western hemisphere from 1546
At this time there are six Christian towns in Cuba; Santiago, with 80 houses; Habana, with 70-80 homes, Baracoa, Puerto Príncipe, Sancti Spíritus, and Bayamo with 30-40 homes each.

Hernando de Soto lands on Florida and sets out to explore the interior.

In the early 1550's, a Taino chief named Guamá, along with his wife (Habaguanex) and about sixty other men, battles the Spaniards in hit-and-run, guerrilla-style attacks. By this time, however, the Spaniards have spread across the entire island.
The Spanish Crown allows a privileged group of merchants to import African slaves to Cuba because "of the laziness of the Cubans, who resist all kinds of work."

French pirate Peg-Leg Leclerc attacks Santiago de Cuba.

Another pirate, Jacques de Sores, a Lutheran, plunders the city of Havana.

It is estimated that only about 2,000 Tainos are left in all of Cuba (out of a population of about 3,000,000 before Spanish arrival).
May 14. An order of the Havana City Council prevents Negroes from owning taverns and inns, and from selling tobacco or wine (on penalty of fifty lashes).

September. A Royal decree regulating the sale of tobacco states that penalties for breaking this law shall be doubled if the law breaker is a Negro. They shall, in addition, receive 200 lashes in public.

The Castillo del Morro is completed. Strategically situated above the eastern entrance to the Havana harbor, the fort is designed to protect the city from attackers.

Cuba's population is estimated at about 20,000, of which about 13,000 live in and around Havana.

In order to end smuggling activities (mostly in Bayamo) the government decrees that the sale of tobacco to foreigners is punishable by death.

Havana is officially named the capital of Cuba.

A 10-year ban against tobacco cultivation is lifted, but the entire crop must be shipped to Seville.

The Treaty of Ryswick outlaws buccaneering, ending many pirate raids on the island.

According to a Royal decree, a slave may purchase his freedom. Slaves who obtain their freedom in this manner are known as cortados.

Spanish authorities create a monopoly known as the Factoria. This agency purchases all Cuban tobacco at fixed prices and sells it abroad.

April 17. All Cuban tobacco production falls under government monopoly, and a general purchasing agency (Estanco de Tobacco) is established in Havana, with offices in Bayamo, Trinidad and Santiago de Cuba. This leads to the "Insurrection of the Vegueros" (Sublevación de los Vegueros). The Vegueros again revolt in 1720 and 1723.

A slave revolt takes place at the sugar mill Quiebra-Hacha (in the west of Havana). About 300 slaves are involved, and only government troops are able to prevent the revolt from spreading.

The first theatrical work by a Cuban author appears. El Principe Jardinero y Fingido Cloridano (The Garener Prince and the False Cloridano), written by Don Santiago de Pita.

Based on the "Factoria" model, another monopoly company is created to handle all imports and exports in Havana. The "Royal Compañía de Comercio " soon acquires a bad reputation with Cubans, who complain they are being fleeced and that commerce is restricted in order to keep prices high.

The University of San Jerónimo opens in Havana.

José Martín Félix, a Havana native, expresses pride in his Creole identity in Key of the New World, Havana Described: News of its Foundations, Growth and Condition. The author also expressed sadness that Creoles are not allowed to participate in Cuba's government.

January. King George III of England declares war on Spain
June. A large British force captures Havana. They do not expand their occupation beyond the port, and leave the island in less than two years.
Between 1762 and 1838, about 391,000 slaves are brought to Cuba.

The English and Spanish governments make a trade: Florida (which had been captured by the Spanish) for Havana.

August. A royal decree by King Charles III gives Cuba the right to trade with Spain from various Cuban ports (not just Havana, as before). The new locations include Trinidad, Batabanó, Nuevitas, Remedios, and Matanzas.

The "Real Colegio Seminario de San Carlos y San Ambrosio" is established in Havana.

According to the sensus, Cuba has a total population of 172,620 inhabitants: 96,440 whites, 31,847 free blacks, and 44,333 black slaves.

Cuba produces 4,700 tons of sugar.

Struggle for Independence - 1

October 12. Havana's "Teatro Principal" is inaugurated.
November 5. A Royal order allows North American rebel vessels to purchase supplies in Cuban ports under their own flag. All transactions must be paid in cash, in bills of exchange, or in Negro slaves.

Cuba's government changes to an independent colonial administration under a captain general.

January. Spanish authorities end legal trade between Cuba and all countries other than Spain.

May 31. King Charles III issues a new slave code. Aside from allowing only 270 work days per year, masters are to feed and clothe the slaves according to prescribed standards, to instruct them in the Catholic religion and to convince them to hear Mass regularly. The code also makes requirements on slaves, such as "obey and respect" their masters. [Evidence shows that obligations imposed on slave-masters were not enforced.]

Luis de las Casas is appointed Captain General. He serves in this capacity until 1796.
Don José Agustín Caballero, Tomás Romay, Manuel Zequeria and others publish the first Cuban newspaper, Papel Periódico. Profits go to a public school. [In 1793 the Sociedad Económica makes the paper a semi-weekly and by 1810 the paper appears daily.]

August. A slave revolt begins in the French-half of Haiti, and soon spreads over the entire island. [In 1790, Haiti's population includes 32,000 resident whites, 24,000 freedmen, and 480,000 slaves.]
November 24. A royal decree allows the free commerce of slaves for the next 6 years, and lowers taxes on various Cuban imports.
In Cuba, 1 out of 23 residents is a slave.
Between 1791 and 1805, 91,211 slaves enter the island through Havana.

February 23. Captain General las Casas allows limited Cuban trade with the U.S.
June. The French fleet and most of the white French population are driven out of Haiti.
Spain joins the monarchical allies against Republican France.

Led by ex-slave Toussaint L'Ouverture, the slaves drive out the Spanish from Haiti.

July 22. Spain signs the Treaty of Basel with the victorious French Republic.
Nicolás Morales, a free Negro, leads an uprising that starts in Bayamo and quickly spreads throughout the eastern part of Cuba before it is suppressed by the Spanish army.Philip Foner in A History of Cuba and its Relations with the United States, Vol. 1, 1492-1845: "…what especially disturbed the slave-owners about this uprising was that whites and Negroes joined together in the revolt and demanded, as in the Haitian Revolution, equality between black and white."

June 12. After peace is reestablished, Spain ends all commercial ventures between Cuba and the U.S.
October 6. Now a French ally, Spain declares war on Britain.

Narcisso López is born in Venezuela. He joins the Spanish army at an early age and operates against General Simón Bolívar.
November 18. A Royal Decree opens the Atlantic and Caribbean ports of the Spanish empire to neutral trade on a temporary basis. [This decree is revoked with the Royal Decree of April 18, 1799, which closes these ports to neutral trade.]

July 1. In Haiti, L'Ouverture announces a new constitution that abolishes slavery and declares the island's independence.
Set on recovering the French-portion of Haiti and restoring white supremacy, napoleon sends an army of 43,000 French veterans lead by his brother in law, Victor E. Leclerc. (L'Ouverture is tricked into sailing to France and treacherously imprisoned until his death.)

War breaks out again between France and England.
November 29. The 8,000 French soldiers remaining in Haiti surrender.
December. The Spanish colonies are again open to neutral trade.
December 31. Cuba's romantic poet José María Heredia is born in Santiago de Cuba.

The Negro Republic of Haiti (the first in history) is proclaimed.
Sugar production in Cuba increases to 34,000 tons. [In 1795 it was 14,000 tons.]

Venezuelan Creole leader Sebastián Francisco de Miranda launches the first serious independence movement against Spain in the Americas.

Napoleon invades Spain. England and Spain become allies.
May 6. Under pressure from Napoleon, King Ferdinand VII and Prince Ferdinand renounce the Spanish throne. In June, Napoleon installs his brother Joseph as the new King of the Spanish empire.

May. Cuba's Junta Superior is invited by the Caracas Junta to join the revolt against Spain, but Cuba remains faithful to the Crown.

July 5. The United Provinces of Venezuela declare their independence from Spain. From Buenos Aires and Caracas, José San Martín and Simón Bolívar set out to end Spanish dominance of the New World. [The Republic of Columbia is proclaimed on December 17, 1819.]

February. José Antonio Aponte, leader of Negro uprising, and eight of his collaborators are caught and imprisoned.
April 9. At 9:30 a.m., Aponte and the other collaborators are put to death on the gallows. The head of Aponte is placed in an iron cage and displayed in front of the house where he lived, and his hand is displayed in another street. The heads of various accomplices are also displayed.

The period of the Napoleonic Wars brings prosperity to Cuba despite restrictions and obstacles placed by the crown. Demand for sugar, tobacco and coffee increases, and more capital is injected into crop production. More slaves are introduced, and trade between the U.S. and Cuba increases.

July. José Cienfuegos replaces Juan Ruiz de Apodaca as Captain General.

A British-inspired agreement ends the slave trade, but after the agreement, slaves continue to be imported illegally in greater numbers.
The Cuban tobacco monopoly, known as Factoria, is abolished.
A new census illustrates the growth of the island: 552,000 inhabitants, 239,000 of them whites, and 331,000 nonwhite.
December. Explaining the reason for the introduction of Negro slavery into Cuba, King Ferdinand VII of Spain writes, "the impossibility of finding Indians… to do the work of breaking and cultivating the land demanded that this work… be delivered to more robust arms."

February 10. A Royal Decree allows Creoles the right to trade with vessels from other nations at the various Cuban ports.

A Royal Decree finally grants Creoles full legal rights to the lands they occupy (until this time, all property was considered royal property).
April 18. Carlos Manuel de Céspedes is born in Bayamo.

April 16. The Constitution of 1812 is reinstated after slight resistance from Captain General Juan Manuel Cajigal.

Nicolás de Mahy succeeds Cajigal as Captain General.
July 28. Peru issues a declaration of independence.
September 15. The United Provinces of Central America issues a declaration of independence. The new confederacy includes Nicaragua, Honduras, Costa Rica, Guatemala and El Salvador.
Between 1821 and 1831 more than three hundred expeditions bring an estimated sixty thousand slaves to Cuba.

Cuban poet José María Heredia and José Francisco Lemus organize a secret society known as “Suns and Rays of Bolívar.” The society plans a rebellion for independence and seeks union with the famed liberator.
U.S. Secretary of State John Quincy Adams makes the policy of the U.S. perfectly clear, “These islands (Cuba and Puerto Rico) are natural appendages of the North American continent, and one of them (Cuba) almost within sight of our shores, from a multitude of considerations has become an object of transcendent importance to the commercial and political interests of our Union… These are laws of political as well as physical gravitation.”
December 2. In what becomes known as the Monroe Doctrine, President James Monroe stakes out the Western Hemisphere as a U.S. sphere of influence by warning Europe not to interfere in the affairs of any of the American nations that have recently become independent.
Between 1823 and 1836, clear practical and philosophical divisions develop and grow between Cubans and Spaniards.

December 9. With the battle of Ayacucho in Peru, Spanish forces are decisively defeated and thrown out of the American mainland—north, central and south. Spain still controls two islands in the West Indies: Cuba and Puerto Rico.

May 28. A Royal Decree expands the powers of the Captain General of Cuba.
Mexico and Venezuela plan an expedition to support the Cuban struggle for independence, but the United States, fearing an independent Cuba would lead to the end of slavery with repercussions in the Southern states, lets it be known through Secretary of State Henry Clay that it would block any move to liberate Cuba from Spain. The decision is based on the belief that in due time Cuba would come to be part of the U.S.

March 16. Francisco Agüero y Velazco and Andrés Manuel Sánchez are executed in Puerto Príncipe for opposing the Spanish empire's control over Cuba, becoming the first martyrs of the independence movement.

The census shows a population of 704,000, of whom 311,000 are white, 286,000 slaves, and 106,000 free Negroes or mixed bloods. It also lists 1,000 sugar mills, 30,090 ranches, 5,534 tobacco farms, and 2,067 coffee plantations.
Between 1827 and 1829, Cuban exiles in Colombia and Mexico form a secret society called the "Black Eagle" with the goal of starting another revolution, but the Spanish Government soon discovers them.

Spain increases taxation, imposes arbitrary rules for its own benefit and completely denies the Creoles (native born Cubans of mixed ancestry) any voice in the government.

The highly regarded magazine Revista bimestre de Cuba begins publication.

May. Mariano Ricafort becomes Captain General.
British colonies abolish slavery.

Child-queen Isabel II assumes the throne of Spain. | The Cuban Academy of Literature is founded.

March 21. The Spanish crown increases the authority of the Cuban Captain-General to dictatorial status.
June. General Miguel Tacón is appointed Captain-General of Cuba. Tacón's administration marks a new political direction for the island's government that lasts until the end Spanish rule over Cuba in 1898. Tacón is mistrustful of the Cubans and deals with them severely. In his eyes, Cubans are the enemy of Spain and must be kept from participating in public affairs.
[Until about this time, Cubans born to Spanish parents were considered Spanish like their parents. After Tacón's period, it was popular for Cubans born of Spanish parents to have a more "Cuban" identity. They were more likely to believe that Spanish laws were good for Spain, and that Cubans should be able to have a separate identity.]
July 15. A papal decree officially ends the Spanish Inquisition.
July 31. About 668,000 slaves are freed at sundown in the British West Indies.

July 9. Tomás Estrada Palma is born in Bayamo, Oriente. He becomes a noted Cuban revolutionary figure and the first President of the Republic of Cuba in 1902.

September 1. From exile in New York, José María Heredia writes to Cuba's Captain-General Tacón and requests permission to return to the island.

April 25. A new Royal Decree eliminates Cuban delegates from serving on the Cortes.

May 7. José María Heredia dies in Mexico.
In the 50-year period between 1790 to 1839, the number of sugar haciendas increases to about 800 from about 400.

Official Cuban census reports: 1,037,624 inhabitants: 448,291 white, 152,838 free blacks, 436,495 slaves. Twice as many American ships visit Havana. The value of Cuban exports to the U.S. is double that of sales to Spain.

June 14. Antonio Maceo is born in Majaguabo, San Luis, Oriente Province.

There are now about 1,442 sugar mills on the island.
January. U.S. citizens and "manifest destiny" advocates Moses Beach and John O'sullivan meet in Havana with members of the Club de la Habana, a group of wealthy Cubans seeking annexation to the U.S.

June 9. President Polk offers Spain $100 million for Cuba.
August 15. U.S. Minister Saunders meets with Spain's minister of foreign affairs Pedro J. Pidal in Madrid. Spain officially refuses to sell Cuba.

Yucatecan Indians from Mexico are imported for slave labor. At the same time, Chinese contract workers are entering the island in large numbers.
White persons enforce segregation in public places as a means of stressing their claim to superiority.
September - October. The first filibustering expedition by Narciso López (with the intention of invading Cuba) ends in failure.

Read a brief excerpt from the introduction to: Slaves, Sugar, & Colonial Society: Travel Accounts of Cuba, 1801-1899, by Louis A. Pérez, Jr.
April 25. The steamer Georgiana, with about 200 Kentucky filibusters on board, leaves new Orleans for Chagres, Panama (part of the Narciso López expedition). *
May 2. The steamer Susan Loud, with 150 Louisianan filibusters follows the Georgiana.
May 7. The steamer Creole, with Narciso López and about 650 men leave New Orleans, presumably heading for California by way of Chagres. *
* By going to Chagres, López hopes to evade the Neutrality Law of 1818, which forbids military expeditions against powers at peace with the U.S. from being launched from the U.S.
May 19. The second filibustering expedition, led by Narciso López, takes control of Cárdenas. After a brief battle with Spanish forces they are forced to the sea. Foner: "Of the entire force, only five men were Cubans; the rest came mainly from the Southern states."

August 11. The 3rd filibustering expedition (with 435 men) led by Narciso López lands at Bahía Honda (about 40 miles from Havana).
August 13. Spanish forces defeat López' army in the village of Las Pozas.
August 16. After capturing some of López' men at sea, they are taken to Havana, where the 51 remaining members of the regiment are placed before a firing squad.
September 1. Narciso López is executed publicly in Havana. Before his death, he shouts bravely, "My death will not change the destiny of Cuba!"
September. In New Orleans, former associates of Narciso López form a secret society called the "Order of the Lone Star." The goal of the order is to incorporate Cuba into the U.S. With 50 chapters in 8 Southern states and an estimated membership of 15,000 to 20,000, the order develops a plan to invade Cuba in the summer of 1852, in conjunction with the "Conspiracy of Vuelta Abajo," a revolt organized in Vuelta Abajo (Pinar del Río) by Francisco de Frías, Narciso's wealthy brother-in-law.
September 23. From an editorial in the New York Daily Times, "If the Cubans are really anxious for independence, why did they fight them (the invasion by Narcisso Lopez) with the utmost fierceness, from the time they first landed upon their shores? Why did they regard them as robbers and pirates, if they had bespoken their aid as allies and friends?"
"The people of the United States cannot be made to believe that any nation of Europe, except Spain, has any right to interfere with the destinies of Cuba."

August. Spaniards discover the "Conspiracy of Vuelta Abajo." Some of the conspirators escape to the U.S., but others are condemned to death. Frías is sent to prison.
October 22. After Spain refuses to sell Cuba to the U.S. a 2nd time, the New York Times declares, "The Cuban question is now the leading one of the time."

January 28. Don José Martí y Pérez is born in Havana.
April 29. The Junta Cubana of New York calls on General John A. Quitman (a former associate of Narciso López) to lead an invasion of Cuba, and proposes to make him "exclusive chief of our revolution, not only in its military, but also in its civil sense."
August 18. Quitman signs a formal agreement with the Junta Cubana which appoints him the "civil and military chief of the revolution, with all the powers and attributes of dictatorship as recognized by civilized nations, to be used and exercised by him for the purpose of overthrowing the Spanish government in the island of Cuba and its dependencies, and substituting in the place thereof a free and independent government." Article II of the agreement states that Quitman would protect slavery in Cuba.
September 23. Spain appoints the Marquis Juan de la Pezuela as Captain General of Cuba. He is well known as an enemy of slavery, and is assigned the task of suppressing the slave trade.
December 7. The Diario de la Marina, a newspaper operated by the government, begins a series of articles discussing slavery and slave trafficking. The articles stress the advantages of a free labor system.
December 23. Pezuela issues the first of several decrees: Negroes "known by the name of 'emancipados' are all free"; anyone caught importing Africans would be heavily fined and banished from the island for two years; all governors and lieutenant governors who fail to advice him of clandestine landings in their respective provinces will be removed from office. [A Negro bought in Africa for 40 "duros" can be sold in Cuba for 700 "duros." Since Cuba's long and broken coastline makes it difficult to prevent landings, slave traders readily risk the established British blockade.]

President Franklin Pierce offers Spain $130 million for Cuba. Spain refuses, again. (Attempts to buy or forcibly annex Cuba by invasion end with the American Civil War.)
February 28. In Havana, Spanish police board an American merchant ship, the Black Warrior, and imprison her crew under a charge of "violating customs regulations."
April. A number of influential slave owners meet in Havana with U.S. Consul William H. Robertson to urge that he persuade U.S. President Pierce to send American troops to Cuba to prevent slave emancipation.
May. All slave owners are instructed to make a full declaration of their slave property. This includes name, age and sex of each slave, and purchase information.
October 9, 10, 11. In Ostend, Belgium, 3 U.S. diplomats hold a meeting from which emerges "The Ostend Manifesto."
September. José de la Concha returns to Cuba as Captain General. (Pezuela is removed as a result of the Black Warrior incident.)

January 12. Captain General José de la Concha places Havana under martial law in anticipation of a filibustering expedition by General John A. Quitman.
March 9. General Quitman meets with U.S. President Pierce in Washington. After this meeting Quitman abandons attempts to annex Cuba through filibustering.
August 25. General Quitman officially resigns from efforts to annex Cuba through a filibustering expedition.

August 14. From the New Orleans Bee: "There is no earthly use in seeking to plant slavery in Northern territory; climactic influences are against us there, and slavery will not flourish where white labor can compete with it successfully. But southward we have almost a boundless field of enterprise lying before us. There is Cuba… Slave labor there already gives rich returns, and annexation to the Union would introduce superior American management in that island and raise the productivity of the individual slave laborers… Let the people of the South cease an unavailing effort to force slavery into ungenial climes, and strive to plant it where it would naturally tend."

Antonio Maceo joins the Masonic Lodge of Santiago de Cuba and enters the inner revolutionary circle.

March 25. An article in El Siglo by The Count of Pozos Dulces (who runs the paper) announces the formation of the Reform Party, adding that a number of slave and property owners have joined intellectuals in favoring the end of the slave traffic and the abolition of slavery.
November 25. A Royal Decree establishes a Colonial Reform Commission to discuss proposals to reform the island. A Junta de Información (Board of Information) is to discuss three particular issues: 1) special laws already promised and how they are to be founded, 2) how to regulate the work of Blacks and Asians and the encouragement of white immigration, 3) commercial treaties and related tax reforms.
By this time, Creole liberals are encouraged by the end of the Civil war in North America, the Spanish defeat in the revolution of Santo Domingo and the victory of Juárez in Mexico. Many Cubans are more willing to oppose the government, but most of the wealthy are still reluctant to risk their property in radical measures. The fear of the Negroes in a revolution is one of the main restraining factors.

February 16. Antonio Maceo marries María Magdalena Cabrales y Fernández.
March 25. José Antonio Saco is elected to represent the district of Santiago de Cuba in a commission that is to testify in Spain about needed reforms.
May 30. Captain-General Dulce is recalled, and replaced by Captain-General Lersundi, who stays until December of the same year. [Lersundi governs Cuba again from December 1867 until January 1869.]
October 30, 1866. The Junta de Información is inaugurated at a meeting presided by Don Alejandro Castro, Minister of Ultramar. Items 2 and 3 are discussed from the priorities identified on 11/25/1865, and some are disappointed by the small mention of item 1.
November. Maceo’s first daughter is born: María de la Caridad Maceo.
José Martí writes:
“The U.S. has never looked upon Cuba as anything but an appetizing possession with no drawback other than its quarrelsome, weak and unworthy population.” He warns Cubans that “to change masters is not to be free.”

Early in the year, the Spanish government imposes new taxes on the island ranging from 6 to 12 percent on real estate, incomes and all types of business. This is on top of the enormous customs duties about which Cubans have continuously complained.
April 27. In Madrid, the Spanish government dismisses the “Junta de Información,” a 22-member Cuban delegation asking for reforms.
April 30. The papers El Siglo and Diario de la Marina run articles about the reaction to the demise of the Junta de Información.
Read a brief excerpt from: Cuba: A Short History, about life before the war.

Struggle for Independence - 2

February 24. In Puerto Rico, an uprising known as the Grito de Lares begins.
August 4. At a coordinating meeting for revolutionary activities (on a farm named San Miguel de Rompe, in Las Tunas) Carlos Manuel de Céspedes makes a passionate plea for immediate action, ending with the words: “Gentlemen, the hour is solemn and decisive. The power of Spain is decrepit and worm-eaten; if it still appears great and strong to us, it is because for more than three centuries we have contemplated it from our knees.”
August 14. In Santiago de Cuba, a revolutionary committee is formed. [Eventually a date for rebellion is set for December 24 1868, but as you will see, the rebellion is forced to start early.]
September 18. Isabel II, Queen of Spain, is dethroned.
September 23. In Puerto Rico, the Revolutionary Junta proclaims a free Puerto Rican Republic.
October. Early in the month, a telegrapher friendly to the revolution intercepts a telegram from General Lersundi to Governor Udaeta of Bayamo. It reads: "Cuba belongs to Spain and for Spain she must be kept no matter who is governing. Send to prison D. Carlos Manuel de Céspedes, Francisco Vicente Aguilera, Pedro Figueredo, Francis Maceo Osorio, Bartolomé Masó, and Francisco Javier de Céspedes…" [The conspiracy is discovered when the wife of Trinidad Ramirez, one of the rebels, reveals the plan to her priest in confession. The priest convinces her to tell the authorities.]
October 10. From his plantation, La Demajagua, near Yara, Carlos Manuel de Céspedes proclaims Cuban independence in the historic “Grito de Yara.” Joined by 37 other planters, he liberates his slaves and incorporates them into a rebel army.
October 12. First clash with Spanish troops at Yara. The rebels eat supper at the Maceo house in Majabuabo. After the meal, Marcos Maceo donates four ounces of gold, a dozen good machetes, two revolvers, four shotguns and a blunderbuss. Antonio and José Maceo, with half-brother Justo Regüeyferes Grajales, join the rebels.
At this point, Spain has only 7,000 regulars on the island, and a Volunteer force armed with 90,000 Remington rifles purchased in the U.S. The volunteers help Spain to contain the rebellion until reinforcements arrive.
October. The rebel army, known as the mambises, consists initially of 147 volunteers who do not even have a weapon each. Their weapons consist of 45 fowling pieces, 4 rifles, and a few pistols and machetes.
October 24. A group of 80 distinguished Cuban citizens and prominent Spaniards hold a meeting with Captain-General Lersundi to ensure the continuing hostile policy against the insurgents. Lersundi re-emphasizes his loyalty to the Queen of Spain (who has been overthrown and is in exile).
October 28. Ten days after capturing the city of Bayamo, the Revolutionary Municipal Council of Bayamo petitions Céspedes to proclaim the immediate abolition of slavery.
November. The rebel army now has 12,000 men.
At battle of “El Cristo” and “El Cobre,” Antonio Maceo shows exceptional courage, initiative and leadership. He is quickly promoted to sergeant, and then to captain.
In Bayamo, Maceo achieves a victory that his commander, Colonel Pio Rosado, declared impossible. He is praised by General Mármol.
November 1868 through December 1869. Spain sends its finest officersto command 35,000 veteran soldiers and thousands of others. Spain also sends 14 warships and a train of artillery equipped with latest model Krupp cannons.
December 27. Céspedes signs a decree declaring Cuba incompatible with slavery, but adding that slavery will end "when it had full use of its powers under free suffrage so that it could agree on the best means of carrying the proposal to and end that would be advantageous to the old as well as the new citizen." [Meaning a gradual and indemnified abolition to happen after the war.]

January 4. General Don Domingo Dulce(a former Captain General with a liberal reputation) arrives in Cuba to replace Lersundi. Among his more liberal changes is the granting of freedom of the press and of assembly. Between January 7 and 28, 77 different periodicals appear supporting the revolution.
January 7. Spanish General Valmaseda outmaneuvers rebel General Marmól and surprises Cuban forces at El Saladillo. More than 2,000 Cubans die in this encounter, most of them are recently freed slaves.
January 8. On the plain of La Caridad, the battle continues.
January 10. Spanish General Valmaseda crosses the river Cauto and heads for Bayamo.
January 15. Valmaseda enters Bayamo and finds it burned to the ground. This is done with the unanimous consent of its inhabitants upon realizing they cannot resist the siege by Spanish forces armed with artillery and modern weapons.
January 16. Maceo is promoted to commander. He begins to operate with independent forces, still under the jurisdiction of General Marmól. With this new freedom to “formulate his own tactics,” he achieves victories in Mayari and Guantánamo.
January 21. In Havana, the Volunteers force (controlled by wealthy slave-owners opposed to independence) attacks the audience attending a comedy at the Villanueva Theatre. The performance is suspected of being favored by rebel sympathizers.
January 26. Maceo is promoted to lieutenant colonel of the Liberating Army.
Historian Philip Foner, from his book Antonio Maceo:
“On many occasions, Spanish officers were completely fooled by Maceo’s whirlwind attacks against their superior forces.”
February 9. Under General Federico Cavada (a former colonel in the U.S. Volunteer Service during the Civil War) the Las Villas district joins the war for independence.
February 26. The Revolutionary Assembly of the Central Department in Camagüey issues a declaration that states: “The institution of slavery, introduced into Cuba by Spanish Dominion, must be extinguished along with it.”
Read an excerpt from historian Philip Foner’s book: A History of Cuba and its relations with The United States, Volume II – 1845-1895, on the nature of the revolutionary government.
March 19. U.S. President Grant's cabinet makes its first major decision on a Cuban policy. Nearly all members of the cabinet, led by Secretary of State Hamilton Fish, are opposed to the recognition of Cuban belligerency.
March 24. José Morales Lemus, a Cuban representative of the revolutionary government, arrives in Washington and tries to see Hamilton Fish. He is told that the U.S. will "observe perfect good faith to Spain, and whatever might be our sympathies with a people, wherever, in any part of the world, struggling for more liberal government, we should not depart from our duty to other friendly governments nor be in haste to prematurely recognize a revolutionary movement until it had manifested capacity of self-sustenance and of some degree of stability." [However, Cuban rebels sustain a war for ten years with a great deal of stability, and Fish remains firm in his position.]
April 4. Dulce endorses a proclamation by Count Valmaseda in which all males over 15 years of age caught absent from their plantation without adequate excuse are to be shot.
April 9. The U.S. House of Representatives adopts a resolution to recognize Cuban belligerency by a vote of 98 to 25. (This is the will of the American people, but the U.S. government never acts on it, spurred by the desire to absorb Cuba.)
April 10. The Constitutional Convention meets at Guaimaro. A constitution is adopted that provides for a republican government. Article 24 declares, “all the inhabitants of the Republic are absolutely free.”
April. José Martí, now 17-years old, is sentenced to six years of hard labor for expressing his opposition to colonial rule.
May. General Thomas Jordan, a well-known U.S. Confederate officer, lands in Cuba and is soon made Cuban Chief-of-Staff.
May 14. In a fierce and bloody battle at San Agustín, Sergeant Marcos Maceo (Antonio Maceo's father) is killed in battle at the side of his son by a Spanish bullet. In his book about Antonio Maceo, Foner says, "Mariana Grajales, living incarnation of Cuban patriotism, cried out to the youngest of her sons, still a little boy: 'And you, stand up tall; it is already time that you should fight for your country.'"
In A History of Cuba and its relations with The United States, Volume 2, historian Philip S. Foner writes: “Indeed, as a passionate patriot and foe of the Spaniards, this Negro woman, Mariana Grajales, one of the outstanding women in Cuba’s revolutionary history, swayed her entire family to the cause of independence.”
May 22. In an attack at the strongly defended sugar mill, “Armonia,” Maceo receives the first of 24 wounds. He is carried back to a hidden rest camp, where his wife and his mother nurse him back to health.
A few weeks later, Maceo's two small children die of disease, possibly cholera.
June 5. Captain General Dulce leaves for Spain.
June 28. Captain General Antonio Caballero de Rodas arrives in Cuba.
Late in the month, an expedition organized by the New York Junta, made up of 800 to 1,400 men equipped with Spencer carbines, revolvers, sabres, two batteries of 12-pounder, and several 60-pounder guns, is intercepted by U.S. federal authorities and most of the men are arrested.
July 16. The House of Representatives rejects the Constitution. Instead, it institutes the Rule of the Freed (Reglamento de Libertos). This allows slavery to continue, but in a more discreet form. The slave, now called a “liberto,” must continue to work for his master, who has no obligation to feed, clothe or pay wages.
Historian Philip Foner, from his book Antonio Maceo:
“What the Cuban army lacked in numbers, experience, warfare training and arms and equipment was often compensated for by their thorough knowledge of the country, effective use of guerrilla tactics, greater immunity to cholera and other diseases that flourished on the island, and above all patriotic devotion. The most important asset of guerrilla warfare is an ideal; the rebels were fighting for the liberation of their country, and this gave them the popular support without which a guerrilla movement cannot be effective.”
September 5. U.S. Secretary of War John A. Rawlins* dies. He is the only man in U.S. President Grant's cabinet that actively promotes recognition of Cuban belligerency. From his deathbed, he sends a message to President Grant through Postmaster-General Creswell: “There is Cuba, poor, struggling Cuba. I want you to stand by the Cubans. Cuba must be free. Her tyrannical enemy must be crushed. Cuba must not only be free, but all her sister-islands. The Republic is responsible for its liberty. I will disappear; but you must concern yourself with this question. We have worked together. Now it is up to you alone to watch over Cuba.” [President Grant never recognizes Cuban belligerency.]
[* On February 13, 1931, the centenary of Rawlins’ birth is celebrated in Cuba.]
October. In a sharp turn in direction, Céspedes calls for the destruction of all the cane fields on the island. “Better for the cause of human liberty,” he says, “better for the cause of human rights, better for the children of our children, that Cuba should be free, even if we have to burn every vestige of civilization from the tip of Maisí to the tip of San Antonio, so that Spanish authority shall be eliminated.”
By the end of the year, Spain has amassed a powerful fleet, with about 50 vessels of 400 guns, including the Victoria and Zaragoza. This proves to be a major advantage, since the rebels have no navy and Spain is easily able to keep outside aid from getting through.
The rebel army is forced to abandon the province of Las Villas, the most western point of the rebellion, and fall back to Camagüey. However, Spaniards are constantly on the run in Santa Clara, Camagüey and Oriente provinces.

March 12. General Luis Marcano (from Santo Domingo) is treacherously assassinated.
March 24. An excerpt from a bitter editorial in Madrid’s newspaper "La Discusión."
June 26. General Donato Mármol is killed in battle. . General Máximo Gómez is placed in command of Maceo’s area. Gómez and Maceo become dominant military figures.
July 20. Gómez reorganizes his forces. General Calixto García becomes second in command, and Lieutenant Colonel Antonio Maceo is put in charge of the third battalion.
Heading a battalion of only 187 men, Maceo takes part in numerous successful attacks under Gómez’s command.
October 2. After defeating a Spanish attack on his camp in Majaguabo, Maceo receives another severe battle wound. By the twentieth he’s active again, taking part in the highly successful assault on the town of Ti-Arriba, which results in the destruction of the town and the capture of a large quantity of booty.
December 4. During an attack on the fortress of Baragua, Maceo is wounded again. His younger brother, Julio, dies in the same battle.
December 27. Spanish Prime Minister Juan Prim y Pratas is assassinated in Madrid.

July. Gómez decides to invade the Guantánamo zone, which is strongly guarded by Spanish elite units. [Planned by General Gómez, the campaign is designed to test the officers that had been in training in a sort of ambulatory officers' school. The efforts rely heavily on Maceo and Calixto García.]
At the beginning of the campaign, Maceo clashes with the famous rifle battalion of San Quintín, one of Spain’s most aggressive and disciplined units. In battle, Maceo’s aide, Manuel Amábile, sacrifices his life in order to save his leader. This is not the last example of the love Maceo's soldiers had for him.
During a fierce battle at “La India,” José Maceo lays wounded in front of the enemy trenches, and Antonio Maceo refuses to retreat without another attempt to save his brother. In a brave effort, Maceo leads a charge “through a veritable shower of bullets until the fortifications were breached and the buildings set on fire.” José Maceo is rescued, and after a long period of recovery his life is saved. The Spaniards fight to the death, and only one soldier escapes.
October 15. General Gómez leaves Maceo in charge while he attends a government conference on war strategy.
November 27. A group of medical students are executed in Havana by a Spanish firing squad.

January/February. Spanish General Martínez Campos, after failing to defeat Maceo with 1,000 men, declares, “It is impossible to end the war by means of arms.”
March. Maceo is promoted to full colonel.
March 8. Learning that Martínez Campos is expecting re-enforcements, Maceo intercepts the troops and stages a series of "flank and rear guard attacks," inflicting numerous wounds on the advancing columns.
March 18. Spanish troops receive additional support and engage Maceo in a six-hour battle. Maceo retreats.
March 27. Maceo strikes back, defeats Spanish troops at “Loma Del Burro.”

May 26 – June 7. During a conference with government officials, President Céspedes meets Maceo for the first time.
Gómez revives his plan to attack the West, argues that Cuban victories in Guantánamo are important, but the revolution can only make real headway if it moves west. The plan is accepted, but when ordered to divert men from the expedition to protect the members of the government, Céspedes refuses to obey, and is removed from command for disobedience.
The plan to move westward is later abandoned, and Maceo reluctantly replaces his commander.
June 20. General Calixto Garcia takes over Gómez’s position as commander of the province.
July 1. The whole army of Orience comes under Calixto Garcia. In the next four months, the rebel army wins victory after victory in the Guantánamo district. Maceo plays a leading role.
September 26. U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant rejects a proposal that offers Cuban independence and the abolition of slavery.
November. Maceo rejoins General García to help capture the town of Holguín. Exactly one month later the town is captured.
Late, 1872. As a result of the many successful Cuban campaigns, Captain General Valmaseda resigns. The new Captain General, Cándido Pieltán, adds 54,000 men, 42 artillery pieces, and 2,000 horses (aside from the thousands of guerrillas not formally part of the Spanish army but used mainly to guard towns, garrisons, plantations and mills) to the war effort. The Rebel Army, on the other hand, has close to 7,000 men.

May 11. Ignacio Agramonte is killed. General Máximo Gómez assumes command of the Eastern forces.
June 8. Antonio Maceo is promoted to Brigadier General.
August 6. A Royal Decree issued on this day condemns Antonio Maceo to death.
October. Gómez rejects a proposal by Vicente García to remove President Céspedes.
October 23. The ship Virginius sails from Kingston, Jamaica, with men and weapons for the rebels.
October 27. Members of the House of Representatives call for a meeting in Bijaugal. President Céspedes is not invited, and the session removes Céspedes and proclaims Salvador Cisneros Betancourt as President. The leading officers are present, including Major Generals Modesto Díaz and Manuel de J. Calvar; Brigadier Generals Antonio Maceo and José de J. Pérez; Colonels Guillermo Moncada and Francisco Borrero and others, accompanied by 2,000 soldiers. At the meeting, Cisneros announced his new cabinet, which included: Francisco Maceo Osorio as Secretary of State; Antonio Hurtado del Valle as Sub-Secretary; General Vicente García as Secretary of War and Treasury; Félix Figueredo as Sub-Secretary of Dispatch; and Federico Betancourt as Secretary of the Council.
October 31. After an 8-hour sea chase, Spanish officials arrest a number of Americans on the ship Virginius, an American vessel running guns to the Cuban rebels.
November 4. Four ranking officers of the rebel army who were arrested on the Virginius are executed.
November 8. In Santiago, 12 prisoners from the Virginius (including three Cubans and various U.S. and British citizens) are executed under orders of General Juan Burriel, who labeles them "enemies of the state." 36 members of the ship's crew (including Captain Fry) are also executed by firing squad after a court-martial aboard the warship San Francisco de Borja.
November 8, late morning. The British warship Niobe arrives in Santiago de Cuba. Commander Sir Lampton Loraine sends a telegram to military governor Juan Nepomuceno Burriel: "I demand that you stop the dreadful butchery that is taking place here."
December 3. Survivors from the Virginius are turned over to Sir Lampton Loraine on the Niobe.
December 18. The last survivors of the Virginius are delivered to Commander Braine at the US warship Juniata, in front of Morro Fortress, Havana.

January 3. In Spain, General Pavía, Captain-General of Madrid, stages a successful Coup De Tat and forces Queen Isabella to flee the country.
February 4. With permission from the government, Gómez forms a force of 500 soldiers from Oriente and Las Villas (300 infantry and 200 cavalry), and names Maceo General of the new division, second in command only to himself.
February. Rebel conservatives launch an all-out slander campaign against Maceo. The opposition stems from the effects of racial prejudice and propaganda about “black domination.”
February 10. In Naranjo, the Rebel Army defeats 2,000 artillery-equipped veteran Spanish troops.
February 27. Carlos Manuel de Céspedes is killed in battle after being ambushed at San Lorenzo (Oriente).
March 15. In the Battle of Las Guásimas, the rebel army is again victorious against larger Spanish forces. Maceo, with 200 cavalry and 50 infantry, attacks a column of 2,000 men sent from Camagüey. In all, the Spaniards pour 6,000 men and six pieces of artillery into the battle, but have to retreat.
March 17. As the battle of Las Guásimas continues and the Spanish cavalry is all but defeated, Spanish General Manuel Armizán requests help from troops in Camagüey. By the end of this battle, Spaniards suffer 1,037 dead and wounded, and the Cubans 166. The rebel victory uses so much ammunition and equipment that the western invasion is temporarily called off.
April 16. Captain General José Gutiérrez de la Concha signs another decree (the third) proclaiming the death penalty for Antonio Maceo and confiscating all his property.
April 18. Maceo’s brother, Miguel, dies in his arms from wounds received in an attack on the Spanish garrison at Cascorro.
September 4. Calixto García is captured by the Spaniards and Maceo assumes command of the Second Division.

January 6. General Máximo Gómez crosses the ‘trocha’ (the long fortified line that the Spaniards erected to prevent penetration of the West. “The objective, Gómez tells his men, “is the destruction of the plantations which sustain the enemy, principally the mills from which the hacendados derive their wealth and with which they support Spain’s war effort.”
April 27. General Vicente García renounces allegiance to the revolutionary government and calls an assembly at Lagunas de Varona of everyone dissatisfied dissatisfied with the progress of the revolution. The move results in a disruption of the whole revolutionary movement.
April 28. President Cisneros attends the protest meeting at Lagunas de Varona and addresses the hostile gathering: "I know, gentlemen, how I should and ought to end this affair, since I have Maceo in Oriente, Reve in Camagüey, and Gómez in Las Villas who will obey me. But rather than risk the disgrace of being accused as the author of the misfortunes of my country, I prefer to sacrifice my position-if that will lead to the reduction of ill will and to the good and uninterrupted march of the revolution." President Cisneros offers to resign.
June 18. Maceo meets with General Vicente García in Alcalá, near Holguín and expresses his disagreement with García’s actions.
July 28. After the House of Representatives accepts the resignation of Cisneros, Juan B. Spotorno is named interim President of the Republic.
November. U.S. Secretary of State Hamilton Fish announces that he is seeking to achieve action by the European powers, led by England, to restore peace in Cuba. Such peace, he adds, would include neither the abolition of slavery nor the independence of the island.
December. Another vicious campaign against Maceo begins. He is again accused of seeking a Black Republic. Maceo ignores the charges.
Alfonso XII, son of Isabel II, takes over the throne of Spain.

January 18. Joaquín Jovellar is appointed Captain-General of Cuba by the Spanish crown.
March 28. The House of Representatives elects Tomás Estrada Palma as president of the Republic (replacing Juan B. Spotorno).
May 16. From his camp in Baragua, Maceo writes a letter to President Tomás Estrada Palma addressing the charges against him. Estrada Palma does not respond.

May 11. García demands reforms in the revolutionary government through a new manifesto
September. Maceo is wounded again. Gómez writes in his diary: “General Maceo was seriously wounded, but that man, with his indomitable spirit and iron constitution, is already active again.”
September 27. After an informer advises General Martínez Campos of Maceo’s wounds and the small size of his escort, the General sends a column of 3,000 men to surround the area, but the rebels had just escaped. Reporting the affair to Madrid, Martínez writes: “I thought I was dealing with a stupid mulatto, a rude muleteer; but I found him transformed not only into a real general, capable of directing his movement with judgment and precision, but also into an athlete who, finding himself indisposed on a litter, assaulted by my troops, abandoned his bed, leaped upon a horse and outdistanced those pursuing him.”
November. President Estrada Palma is captured and imprisoned by the Spaniards. Maximo Gomez is offered the presidency, but he refuses. [Many believe this to be factor that ended the Ten Year War unfavorably for the rebels.] General Vicente García is named president of the Republic.
December. The rebel government, ready to discuss peace terms with Martínez Campos, asks for the neutralization of a part of Camagüey province.

January 29. In the Sierra Maestra Mountains, Maceo successfully ambushes a large column of Spanish troops. The rebels capture their booty, including many weapons and ammunitions, and force the Spaniards to retreat with many dead and wounded.
February 4. While most of his troops are away and he's only left with 38 rebels, Maceo is completely surrounded and outnumbered more than eight-to-one. After three hours of brutal combat, the Cubans completely rout their enemy. Spanish prisoners are later released to the Spanish commanding general.
February 5. A conference is held between the most important leaders of the government and the Spanish generals. The government, including President García and the House of Representatives resign. A Comité del Centro (Committee of the Central Department) is formed.
February 7, 8, 9. In the area of San Ulpiano, Maceo achieves a brilliant victory over the famous San Quentín battalion.
February 9. The Comité del Centro asks Martínez Campos for terms to cease fighting.
February 11. At a meeting in Zanjón, in Camagüey, the Treaty of Zanjón (Pacto de Zanjón) is accepted. Slaves who fought on either side are freed, but slavery is not abolished and Cuba remains under Spanish rule.
February 29. Surrender ceremonies are scheduled to take place at Puerto Príncipe.
March 4. The New York Times runs a lengthy review of the Ten-Year War that doesn't mention Antonio Maceo.
March 8. Maceo camps at Baraguá, near Santiago de Cuba.
March 15. In Baraguá, General Martínez Campos and other Spanish representatives meet with a small gathering of black and white Cuban officers led by General Maceo. The Spanish general continually addresses Maceo as "señor." An eight-day truce is established, but it is agreed that it will end on March 23.
March 18. Maceo is offered a considerable sum of money to accept the Zanjón pact. He replies:
“Do you think that a man who is fighting for a principle and has a high regard for his honor and reputation can sell himself while there is still at least a chance of saving his principles by dying or trying to enforce them before he denigrates himself? Men like me fight only in the cause of liberty and will smash their guns rather than submit.”
March 23. War breaks out again. Maceo issues a circular that becomes known as “The Protest of Baraguá.”
April 6. New York’s La Verdad pays tribute to Maceo’s action: “The hero of the day is Maceo, and it appears it is up to him to raise Cuba again to the pinnacle of its glory.”
May 10. Maceo leaves Cuba (under Presidential orders) in a Spanish cruiser headed from Santiago de Cuba for Jamaica.
May 21. At Loma Pelada, the rebel government accepts Spanish peace terms, officially ending the Ten-Year War.
October. After organizing the Cuban Revolutionary Committee (Comité Revolucionario Cubano), Major General Calixto García issues a manifesto inviting all Cubans to unite in the fight against Spanish rule.
November 23. La Independencia, a publication of the Revolutionary Committee, urges slaves to “take your machetes in hand, and burn the cane.”
José Martí returns to Cuba.

August 5. At a conference in Kingston, Jamaica, Maceo and García plan the next uprising.
August 26. The Little War (La Guerra Chiquita) begins prematurely in Santiago de Cuba. (Some historians consider this to be Cuba's second war of independence, and others ignore it, referring to the struggle that began in 1895 as Cuba's second attempt.)
September 5. Antonio Maceo issues a circular known as “The Kingston Proclamation,” reminding Cubans that the reforms promised have not materialized. "Instead of giving Cubans the opportunity to participate in the direction of their government, Spaniards have been pouring into the island to man political posts, pushing the rightful representatives of the people to one side; they are guided only by the interests of their pockets and that of the Peninsula…”
December 14. In Haiti, an assassination attempt is made on Maceo by Dominican generals Quintín Díaz and Antonio Pérez. Maceo is warned in advance and the attempt fails. It is later revealed that the attempt was planned and paid for by Cuba’s Captain General Ramón Blanco.
José Martí is again exiled. He travels to the U.S., then to Venezuela.

January. Havana becomes the center of slave trafficking to the new world. By now this has become a very lucrative enterprise.
January 24. José Martí makes his first public speech in the U.S. at New York's "Steck Hall." He denies the charge that slaves are using the insurrection to wreak vengeance on whites, which he attributes to Spanish propaganda. “The sins of the slave,” he says, “fall wholly and exclusively on the master.”
In a future article printed in PATRIA, titled, “My Race,” Martí asserts that “Cuban means more than white, mulatto or black men. The souls of white men and Negroes have arisen together from the battlefields where they fought and died for Cuba. Alongside every white man there was a Negro, equal in loyalty and brotherhood for the daily tasks of war. Merit, the tangible culmination of cultural progress, and the inexorable play of economic forces will ultimately unite all men. There is much greatness in Cuba, in both Negroes and whites.”
June 1. General José Maceo, Brigadier Rafael Maceo, Guillermo Moncada, and other rebel leaders surrender. The surrender is arranged by the consuls of France and England in Guantánamo, on the condition that the rebels be given safe passage from the island. But once out at sea, a Spanish warship takes them to Spanish prisons in Africa.
June 28. Maceo leaves Santo Domingo with 34 companions and a cargo of arms, bound for New York.
July 6. A third attempt is made on Maceo’s life.
August 3. García is forced to surrender and is sent to prison in Spain.
August 24.Juan Bellido de Luna, director of the Cuban revolutionary paper in New York, "La Independencia," writes to Maceo, urges him not to invade Cuba.
The U.S. government prepares for overseas expansion, wiping out Native American resistance in the West and building an offensive Navy. Investment by the U.S. in Cuba increases rapidly. Of Cuban exports, 83 percent go to the U.S., only 6 percent to Spain.

José Martí settles in New York, where he lives until 1895.
December 1. U.S. Secretary of State James G. Blaine writes; "that rich island, the key to the Gulf of Mexico, and the field for our most extended trade in the Western Hemisphere, is, though in the hands of Spain, a part of the American commercial system… If ever ceasing to be Spanish, Cuba must necessarily become American and not fall under any other European domination."
December 10. En route to Honduras, Gómez stops in Kingston, where Cuban physician Eusebio Hernández arranges a discussion group with Maceo, Carlos Roloff, and José María Aguirre de Valdéz. Maceo insists that when the time comes, General Gómez is the one man behind whom all Cubans can unite.

May 31. Maceo finds work in Honduras as deputy judge.
July 31. Maceo finds new work (still in Honduras) as commander of the ports of Puerto Cortés and Omoa.
November. Maceo receives the first letter from Martí, (dated July 20).

January. Maceo’s wife, María Cabrales, arrives in Puerto Cortés. Later that same month, General Gómez calls on Maceo with a business proposition – the establishment of an agricultural colony of Cuban emigrants.
June 13. Maceo writes to the editor of El Yara:
“Cuba will be free when the redeeming sword flings her antagonists into the sea. The Spanish domination was a shame and affront to the world that suffered it. But for is it is a shame which dishonors us. Whoever tries to take power over Cuba will only get the dust of its soil drenched in blood, if he does not perish in the struggle.”
July. Maceo resigns his posts in Honduras and declares, “Our enslaved Cuba demands that her sons fight for her freedom.”

August 2. Maceo and Gómez set sail with their families for the U.S. to join the new independence movement.
October 1. In New York, Maceo and Gómez begin to hold conferences at the small hotel of Madame Griffon, on Ninth Ave. This is the first time that Maceo and Martí meet face-to-face.
October 20. In a letter to Gómez, Martí resigns from the revolutionary movement.

October. Maceo travels to Key West to raise money for the independence effort.
December 23. A letter from Gómez to Maceo leads to the first serious breach in their long friendship.

January 16. Maceo sends Gómez another letter, less severe in tone than his first response.
July 10. Flor Crombet arrives in Panama.
July 20. Crombet arrives in Kingston, aboard the Morning Star, with arms and ammunitions for the rebels. “But the ship’s captain,” writes Foner, “fearful of being arrested with his dangerous cargo, threw the entire shipment into the sea and returned to New York.” (This is the second time that war materials are lost).
August 17. At a conference of all the military and civil leaders in Jamaica, the majority votes (over Maceo’s objections) to make another effort to get the revolution started.
Foner: “At one point in the conference, the dissension between Maceo and Crombet reached so heated a point that Maceo challenged Crombet to a duel. (After seconds had been appointed, they decided that the duel should be postponed indefinitely for the good of the cause, and were able to persuade the two combatants to accept this decision.)"
August 31. At a dispute over finances, in which Maceo questions Gómez’s authoritarian style, his integrity, and his fitness to command, Gómez brakes off their friendship.
October 7. Slavery is abolished in Cuba, since economic conditions make it

Podemos no coincidir,..pero respeto tu opinion,porque lo que me interesa es saber como piensas y no, si tienes toda la verdad,..Gracias,..el tuerto.
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